1940s The Amid war in 1940s, AAP extended infl uence, undertook major child health study by Alyson Sulaski Wyckoff , Associate Editor Copyright © 2020 American Academy of Pediatrics Throughout the 1940s, a small number of AAP employees worked out of a four-room, 1,200- square foot “Central Offi ce” on the eighth fl oor of the Carlson Building in Evanston, Ill., including Cliff ord G. Grulee, M.D., FAAP, the fi rst secretary- treasurer and later executive secretary. Editor’s note: Th is is the third of a series of articles on the AAP’s 90th anniversary published by AAP News, (March, 2020). In the 1940s, World War II took a major toll on families, pediatricians and the AAP, yet the organization broadened its infl uence and base, doubling membership by the end of the decade. Th e AAP also directed a landmark national study of child health services, an unprecedented three-year under- taking with two government agencies, extensive chapter support and a $1 million price tag. War’s impact While families suff ered, many of the nation’s physicians were deployed. Eighteen percent of the AAP membership was in the service at the height of the war. Of the 2,100 board-certifi ed pediatricians, most of the 600 who were not AAP members also were deployed. Th e AAP formed war-related committees that addressed topics like care for refugee children, nutrition and refresher courses for returning pediatricians. No annual meeting was held in 1943. Dues were suspended for those in military service. Th e Journal of Pediatrics printed the names of deployed mem- bers and covered war-related topics (http://bit.ly/2Ov10fH). AAP leaders advocated for home-front policies that protected child health such as looser rules on rationing items like milk and shoes, according to the AAP oral history of Katherine Bain, M.D., FAAP (https://bit.ly/3kIOKpG). Dr. Bain was director of the Division of Research in Child Development at the Children’s Bureau. She and Martha Eliot, M.D., FAAP, who later rose to bureau chief, had a major infl uence on maternal and child health at a time when women made up only 13% of pediatricians and 3.5% of general practitioners. Dr. Bain helped evaluate women and children who joined service members in Army camps, which were overcrowded, lacked infrastructure and were ripe with disease. Many women and children lived in shacks. Medical advances in the 1940s fi rst infl uenza vaccines rubella implicated in congenital defects fi rst chemotherapeutic agent for pediatric cancer that induced remission of acute leukemia criteria established to diagnose rheumatic fever global campaign to vaccinate for tuberculosis fi rst use of penicillin streptomycin discovered fi rst combined diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccines available in the U.S. uni278F
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