997
Acute cerebellar ataxia, 81–82
Acute diarrhea
causes of, 178b
description of, 178b, 181b
evaluation of, 180–181, 181b
treatment of, 181–185
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 80
Acute phase reactants, 644
Acute stroke, 79–80
Acute surgical abdomen, 15b
Addison disease, 333
Adduction, 373b
Adenomatous polyps, 399
Adenosine, 102
ADHD. See Attention-defi cit/hyperactivity
disorder
Adolescent(s)
amenorrhea in, 39–45
anxiety in, 65t, 66
back pain in, 85–87, 88–92
bacterial conjunctivitis in, 767
blood pressure in, 508–509
brain development in, 887–888
cardiac arrhythmias in, 98, 104
exercise guidelines for, 519t
fatigue in, 333
gastrointestinal bleeding in, 400
gonadal hyperandrogenism in, 530–533
hoarseness in, 541b, 542
hypertension in, 508b, 519t
hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of, 41
inattention and impulsivity in, 567b
learning disabilities in, 612
mortality, cardiac arrhythmias and, 107
polycystic ovary syndrome in, 530–535
rashes in, 744b–745b
substance use by
brain development considerations, 887–888
screening for, 890t
treatment of, 898
tobacco use by, 888
transgender, 418–419, 427–429
Adrenal cortex, 527
Adrenal hyperandrogenism, 527–529
Adrenarche
defi nition of, 523
description of, 728
premature, 527–529
signs of, 535
Adverse childhood experiences, 68t, 165t, 207t,
562t, 610t, 892t
A
Abdomen
tumors of, 8
tympanitic, 4–6, 6–7
Abdominal distention
algorithm for, 10f
causes of, 3b, 5b
diagnosis of, 4, 5t, 8f
family history and, 2
history taking, 1–2
hospitalization for, 10
physical examination for, 2–4
radiographic diagnosis of, 8f, 9, 10f
symptoms of, 1, 2b
Abdominal masses, 7–8
Abdominal migraine, 972, 974
Abdominal pain
acute, 13, 15, 16b
causes of, 17b
characteristics of, 13, 18–21
chronic, 18
diagnosis of, 15b, 16b
diff erential diagnosis of, 15–18
evaluation of, 18–21, 19f
functional, 14, 19–20
history taking, 18–20
hospitalization for, 24
laboratory evaluation of, 20–21, 21b
medically unexplained symptoms, 658
physical examination for, 20
referral for, 23–24
treatment for, 21–23
Abdominal sepsis, 489
Abdominal wall hypotonia, 9
Abduction, 373b
Absenteeism, 444, 775–776, 776b
Academic diffi culties, 455t
Acanthocytes, 51b
Acetylcholine, 549
Achondroplasia, 652
Acid refl ux, 114
Acne, 736f, 739
Acquired autoimmune myasthenia gravis, 555
Acquired hypothyroidism, 821
Acquired immunodefi ciency syndrome. See AIDS
Acquired torticollis, 948–950
Acrocyanosis, 146, 156
Acrodermatitis enteropathica, 36, 192, 739f
Acute abdomen, 572–573
Acute and recurrent headaches, 443
Acute appendicitis, 13
Index
Page numbers followed by “f” denote gures; “t” denote tables; “b” denote boxes.
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