APPENDIX VI–PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE FROM CONTAMINATED 1085 FOOD PRODUCTS against children ingesting raw fish, which has been associated with transmission of para- sites (eg, Anisakis simplex, Diphyllobothrium latum). Honey Children younger than 1 year should not be given honey. Honey has been shown to con- tain spores of Clostridium botulinum. No cases associated with light and dark corn syrup have been documented. Powdered Infant Formula For many reasons, infants should be fed human milk rather than infant formula whenever possible. Powdered infant formula is not commercially sterile and has been associated with severe illnesses attributable to Cronobacter species and Salmonella species. If infant for- mula must be used, caregivers can reduce the risk of infection by choosing sterile, liquid formula products rather than powdered products. This may be particularly important for those at greatest risk of severe infection, such as neonates and infants with immunocom- promising conditions. Otherwise, water used for mixing infant formula must be from a safe water source, as defined by the state or local health department. If there are concerns or uncertainty about the safety of tap water, bottled water or cold tap water which has been brought to a rolling boil for 1 minute, then cooled to room temperature for no more than 30 minutes, may be used. Prepared formula must be discarded within 1 hour after serving to an infant. Pre- pared formula that has not been given to an infant may be stored in the refrigerator for 24 hours. Food Irradiation1 Irradiation of food can be an effective tool to control foodborne pathogens. Irradiation involves exposing food briefly to ionizing radiation (eg, gamma rays, x-rays, or high- voltage electrons). More than 40 countries worldwide, including the United States, have approved the use of irradiation for various types of foods. Every governmental and profes- sional organization that has reviewed the efficacy and safety of food irradiation has en- dorsed its use. Meat, spices, shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, and some produce items may be irradiated for sale in the United States. The risk of foodborne illness in children could be decreased significantly with the routine consumption of irradiated meat, poultry, and produce. 1www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety- fact-sheets/production-and-inspection/irradiation-resources/irradiation-resources In addition to the Web sites and phone numbers previously cited in this section, de- tailed information on food safety issues and practices, including steps which consumers can take to protect themselves, is available on the following Web sites: www.foodsafety.gov www.fightbac.org www.cdc.gov/foodsafety
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