American Academy of Pediatrics Publishing Staff Mary Lou White, Chief Product and Services Officer/SVP, Membership, Marketing, and Publishing Mark Grimes, Vice President, Publishing Heather Babiar, MS, Senior Editor, Professional/Clinical Publishing Theresa Wiener, Production Manager, Clinical and Professional Publications Jason Crase, Manager, Editorial Services Peg Mulcahy, Manager, Art Direction and Production Mary Louise Carr, MBA, Marketing Manager, Clinical Publications Published by the American Academy of Pediatrics 345 Park Blvd Itasca, IL 60143 Telephone: 630/626-6000 Facsimile: 847/434-8000 The recommendations in this publication do not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care. Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate. Listing of resources does not imply an endorsement by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The AAP is not responsible for the content of external resources. Information was current at the time of publication. Brand names are furnished for identification purposes only. No endorsement of the manufacturers or products mentioned is implied. Every effort has been made to ensure that the drug selection and dosages set forth in this text are in accordance with the current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. It is the responsibility of the health care professional to check the package insert of each drug for any change in indications and dosages and for added warnings and precautions. The publishers have made every effort to trace the copyright holders for borrowed material. If they have inadvertently overlooked any, they will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. This publication has been developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. The authors, editors, and contributors are expert authorities in the field of pediatrics. No commercial involvement of any kind has been solicited or accepted in the development of the content of this publication. ­ Disclosures: Dr DeFoor disclosed a lithotripsy services relationship with American Kidney Stone ­ Management. Dr Wiener disclosed a consulting relationship with Taris Biomedical and a clinical trials relationship with Allergan. Statements and opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Every effort is made to keep Pediatric Urology for Primary Care consistent with the most recent advice and information available from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Special discounts are available for bulk purchases of this publication. E-mail Special Sales at for more information. © 2019 Saul P. Greenfield, MD, FAAP, FACS, and Christopher S. Cooper, MD, FAAP, FACS All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without prior permission from the publisher (locate title at and click on © Get permissions you may also fax the permissions editor at 847/434-8780 or e-mail Printed in the United States of America 9-417/0219 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 MA0897 ISBN: 978-1-61002-253-8 eBook: 978-1-61002-254-5 Library of Congress Control Number: 2018939605
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