disorders, and other comorbid diagnoses. Among individuals who are nonverbal or have language deficits, observable signs such as changes in sleep or eating and increases in chal- lenging behavior should trigger an evaluation for anxiety or depression. Specific learning dif- ficulties (literacy and numeracy) are common, as is developmental coordination disorder. Medical conditions commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder should be noted under the "associated with a known medical/genetic or environmental/acquired condition" specifier. Such medical conditions include epilepsy, sleep problems, and constipation. Avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder is a fairly frequent presenting feature autism spectrum disorder, and extreme and narrow food preferences may persist. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Criteria A. A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by (1) and/or (2): 1. Inattention: Six (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that nega­ tively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities: Note: The symptoms are not solely a manifestation of oppositional behavior, defi­ ance, hostility, or failure to understand tasks or instructions. For older adolescents and adults (age 17 and older), at least five symptoms are required. a. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities (e.g., overlooks or misses details, work is inaccurate). b. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities (e.g., has diffi­ culty remaining focused during lectures, conversations, or lengthy reading). c. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly (e.g., mind seems else­ where, even in the absence of any obvious distraction). d. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., starts tasks but quickly loses focus and is easily sidetracked). e. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities (e.g., difficulty managing se­ quential tasks difficulty keeping materials and belongings in order messy, dis­ organized work has poor time management fails to meet deadlines). f. Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (e.g., schoolwork or homework for older adolescents and adults, preparing reports, completing forms, reviewing lengthy papers). g. Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school materials, pen­ cils, books, tools, wallets, keys, papenwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones). h. Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli (for older adolescents and adults, may include unrelated thoughts). i. Is often forgetful in daily activities (e.g., doing chores, running errands for older adolescents and adults, returning calls, paying bills, keeping appointments). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, Complete Criteria of Select Diagnosesof Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder APPENDIX F
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