472 APPENDIXES Appendix F Arc of Resuscitation Leadership Skills and Behaviors Skill category Skill element Behavioral marker(s) PLANNING Information coordination Exchange information. Identify self as leader. Gather patient information with structured inquiry. Decision-making Discuss strategy and tasks. Define patient care goals. Determine probable upcoming tasks. Discuss contingency plan (“who does what if”). Action coordination Discuss preparations. Assemble team. Identify and delegate tasks. Ensure that documentation is performed. Manage workload. Manage team size and “crowd control.” Focus the group. Order blood products and medications not in resuscitation (code) cart. Coaching and team development Set positive team environment. Become familiar with team members (name, function, and experience). Understand individual team member limitations. Limit communication that is unrelated to patient needs. Set clear expectations for reporting information and concerns. INITIATING STRUCTURE Information coordination Share mental model. Define uniform guidelines and a plan to follow. Ensure that the team has a clear understanding of the plan. Decision-making Determine immediate intervention. Prioritize patient needs. Anticipate patient needs. Action coordination Organize and monitor actions. Allow others to voice concerns and opinions in the setting structure. Ensure that delegated tasks are initiated. Coaching and team development Support and educate. Set clear expectations for reporting information and concerns. Maintain performance standards. ACTION PROCESSES Information coordination Collect patient information. Prioritize information needs. Receive reports from physical examination, vital signs measurement, laboratory tests, and imaging. Discuss findings or assessment. Discuss interpretation of patient information. Review patient information to ensure accuracy and prevent cognitive bias. Communicate findings or assessment. Communicate findings and observations. Communicate changes and trends in patient condition and their implications. Share personal understanding of the situation. Communicate anticipation of likely complications of patient condition. Decision-making Consider treatment options. Consider risks and benefits of different treatment options and algorithms. Avoid cognitive bias and fixation error by refraining from assigning an early diagnosis. Assess action priorities, given the situational urgency. Make decisions proactively, not reactively. Request team input for difficult and/or unclear decisions. Communicate treatment decisions. Determine working diagnosis. Make ultimate call for treatment, briefly explaining decision to ensure shared mental model. NeoSim.indb 472 2/21/21 12:13 PM
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