A AAIDD. See American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Aarskog-Scott syndrome, 2745, 2745t Abatacept, 2584 Abbreviated UCLA PTSD Index, 2528–2529, 2529f ABCD Project, 238 Abdomen. See also Abdominal pain acute. See Acute abdomen distention of. See Abdominal distention imaging of, 147, 147f palpation of, 120, 123f physical examination of, 124t scaphoid, 120 trauma of, 2912–2913 tumors of, 1178–1179 tympanitic, 1177–1178, 1178 Abdominal distention causes of, 1176b–1177b description of, 120 diagnosis of, 1177, 1177t, 1179f family history and, 1175 physical examination for, 1176–1177 radiographic diagnosis of, 1180, 1180f symptoms of, 1175 Abdominal masses description of, 1178–1179 location of, 124f palpation of, 120, 123f Abdominal migraine, 1663 Abdominal pain acute, 1181, 1182b–1183b appendicitis as cause of, 2774–2775, 2796, 2798 causes of, 1184b, 2772b, 2773–2775 characteristics of, 1181, 1184–1186, 1185f chronic, 1183 as conversion symptom, 1927 diagnosis of, 1182b–1183b, 1182–1184 differential diagnosis of, 2649b, 2775, 2776t, 2777, 2798 evaluation of, 1184–1186, 1185f, 2771, 2773 functional, 1181–1182, 1187 history taking, 2771 intussusception, 2774 location of, 123f malrotation and midgut volvulus, 2773f–2774f, 2773–2774 medically unexplained symptoms, 1510 in pancreatitis, 2460 physical examination for, 1185–1186, 2771 psychosocial treatment of, 1187 in systemic lupus erythematosus, 2589 treatment for, 1186–1187 Abdominal pathology general approach to, 968 Hirschsprung disease, 844–845, 984f, 984–985 history taking, 968 imperforate anus, 980–981, 981f meconium aspiration syndrome, 851t, 874, 876f, 877b meconium ileus, 845, 981–982, 983f presenting symptoms for, 968 small left colon syndrome, 982f, 982–984, 983f Abdominal sepsis, 466t, 1427 Abdominal wall defects, 706, 812–813, 978 Abdominal wall hypotonia, 1180 Abduction, 1367b ABO incompatibility in newborn, 911–912 ABO system, 675 Abortion description of, 1162, 1170 minor consent to, 63 Roe v Wade, 692 Abrasion, corneal, 2418–2419, 2419f Abruptio placenta, 798 Abscess brain, 466t characteristics of, 1789–1790 peritonsillar, 2782 retropharyngeal, 2782, 2801 Absence epilepsy, 2602 Absence seizures, 2600b, 2600–2601 Absenteeism, 1405, 1567–1568, 1568b Absorptive hypercalciuria, 2178–2179 Abuse. See also Violence burns as sign of, 2988, 2991f child. See Child abuse and neglect dislocations, 2029–2030 drug. See Drug abuse fractures, 2029–2030 head trauma caused by, 2911 medical. See Medical child abuse ocular trauma caused by, 2422f, 2422–2423 reporting of, 2342 sexual. See Sexual abuse substance. See Substance abuse Academic diffi culties, 1410t Academic underachievement, 1774–1775 Acanthocytes, 1223b Acanthosis nigricans, 132 Accessory nipple, 825 Accessory tragi, 825 Accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio, 1711 Accommodative esotropia, 1712 ACE inhibitors. See Angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors Acellular pertussis vaccines, 2497b Acetaminophen acute pain managed using, 381 antidote for, 2837t, 2929t chronic pain managed using, 396, 397t fever treated with, 378 mild-to-moderate acute pain managed using, 381–382 overdose of, 2933f, 2933–2934 Acetazolamide acute altitude illness treated with, 1708, 1709t seizures treated with, 2609, 2610t Acetylcholine, 1457 Acetylcholinesterase, 701 Acetyl-CoA, 952 Acetylsalicylic acid, 385t Achalasia, 2068–2069 Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 101 Achondroplasia, 708, 1508, 2745, 2745t Acid in caustic esophageal injuries, 2857–2858, 2858t poisoning by, 2938–2939 Acid excretion, 2556, 2557f, 2558f Acid load, in diabetic ketoacidosis, 2814 Acid suppression therapy, 1041 Acid-base system, 2557f Acidemias, 957–958 Acid-fast bacillus smear, 2727 Acidosis medical-legal issues and, 732 metabolic, 960f acidemia caused by, 3019 in acute kidney injury, 2897 description of, 423 in diabetic ketoacidosis, 2813 diagnosis of, 2555 in status asthmaticus, 2972 in neonates, 999, 999b renal mechanisms for acid excretion and, 2556, 2557f, 2558f renal tubular ammonium excretion mechanism and, 2556–2560, 2559f–2560f causes of, 2555 classifi cations of, 2560–2561, 2561t clinical manifestations of, 2555 Index 3079 Index Page numbers followed by “f” denote fi gures “t” denote tables “b” denote boxes.
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