149 Appendix A Glossary of Terms, Concepts, and Abbreviations AAP: Acronym for the American Academy of Pediatrics, a national organi- zation of primary care pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists, and pediatric surgical specialists founded in 1930 and dedicated to the optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being of infants, children, adoles- cents, and young adults. ABC: Acronym for Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up, an evidence-based program of interventions designed by Mary Dozier, PhD, and colleagues to assist foster parents in nurturing children who have experienced disruptions in care and who exhibit disorganized attachments. ACEs: Acronym for adverse childhood experiences. In the original ACE Study by Drs Vincent Felitti and Robert Anda, 10 categories of adversity were exam- ined: emotional, physical, and sexual abuse 5 measures of household dysfunc- tion, including mother treated violently (intimate partner violence), household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and incarcerated household member and emotional and physical neglect. Other investigators have applied the term ACEs to additional adversities known to affect child health, like poverty, neighborhood violence, and exposure to racism. ACE score: The sum of the 10 different categories of ACEs experienced prior to the 18th birthday. To determine an individual’s ACE score, see https:// acestoohigh.com/got-your-ace-score. See also ACEs. Adrenal cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland that sits above each kidney and responds to corticotropin with the release of cortisol. See also Corticotropin Cortisol. Adrenal medulla: The inner core of the adrenal gland that sits above each kidney and responds to activation of the sympathetic nervous system with the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. See also Epinephrine Norepinephrine. 12-appendix-A-9781610021524.indd 149 4/12/18 11:07 AM
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