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Preface
Being entrusted by parents to provide care for their newly born baby
is both a privilege and an extraordinary responsibility. Since the
first edition of the Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, the Neonatal
Resuscitation Program® (NRP®) has helped more than 3 million health
care providers fulfill this responsibility by providing the opportunity
to acquire the knowledge and skills required to save newborn lives.
The history and evolution of the NRP is fascinating and provides
important lessons for health educators. A brief description is available
on the NRP Web site and is well worth reading. Although the 7th
edition includes several new recommendations, it emphasizes the same
guiding principles that have been the foundation of the NRP for nearly
30 years.
The original NRP textbook, published in 1987, was based on
current practice, rational conjecture, and an informal consensus
among experts. Beginning in 2000, the recommendations in the
NRP textbook have been developed using a formal international
consensus process. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
and American Heart Association (AHA) partner in the evaluation
of resuscitation science through the International Liaison Committee
on Resuscitation (ILCOR). Researchers from the ILCOR Neonatal
Task Force meet at regular intervals to review the science relevant
to neonatal resuscitation. In a rigorous process, questions reflecting
key knowledge gaps are identified, information scientists perform
extensive literature searches, Neonatal Task Force members
complete systematic reviews, the quality of scientific evidence is
graded, and draft summary statements are prepared and published
online for public comment. Finally, the members of the Task Force
meet and discuss the summaries until a consensus on science is
reached and treatment recommendations are formulated. The
most recent statement, called the 2015 International Consensus on
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
Science With Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR), is based on a
review of 27 neonatal resuscitation questions evaluated by 38 task
force members representing 13 countries. After the meeting, each
ILCOR member organization develops clinical guidelines based on
the CoSTR document. Although ILCOR members are committed to
minimizing international differences, each organization’s guidelines
may vary based on geographic, economic, and logistic differences. The
most recent guidelines for the United States are called the Neonatal
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