Amin J. Barakat and Coni Evans*
This appendix presents the reference range of laboratory tests performed
to help in the diagnosis of renal disease. Also, please refer to Chapter 4.
Values may vary according to the methodology used. Laboratory values
are given in conventional and international units. Key references have been
used in the formulation of this table.1–4 Some values have been obtained
from speciﬁc studies and reports, and the references may be found else-
where.4 The preﬁxes for units are the standard ones approved by the Con-
ference Generale des Poids et Mesures (1964), the International Union of
Pure and Applied Chemistry, and the International Federation of Clinical
Chemistry. Few other abbreviations are used in the table; for these, please
see the table footnote.
*Director, Clinical Laboratory, Northern Virginia Pediatric Associates, Falls Church, VA.