xvii Introduction Though heart defects in children had been studied for many years, the field of pediatric cardiology was essentially born in the 1930s, when Robert Gross performed the first surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus. Instead of cardiac defects being a pathologic entity seen at autopsy, they became treatable. Helen Taussig began training pediatricians in the new field of pediatric cardiology in the late 1940s, and pediatric cardiology became the first sub-board of pediatrics in 1961. The Section on Cardiology of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) was formed in 1955. The field of pediatric cardiology has seen incredible advances in its short period of existence. Cardiopulmonary bypass, used to repair intracardiac defects, was first successfully used in children in 1954 and 1955. The first echocardiograms, initially 1-dimensional, were reported in 1953, but 2-dimensional images of the moving heart were not available until the early 1970s. The arterial switch procedure, now the standard of care for most patients with transposition of the great arteries, was first performed in 1975—only 43 years ago. As these advances in pediatric cardiac care have occurred, the scope of pediatric primary care exposure to patients with complex cardiac anatomy has increased. This text was created specifically for the pediatric care professional (pediatrician, family physician, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, and all trainees and students) who could see a patient in the inpatient or outpatient setting with heart disease. The content starts with the fundamentals of history and physical examination, followed by the basics of cardiac testing, including electrocardiography, echocardiography, and chest radiography. Specific chapters focus on common symptoms, such as chest pain, syncope, and murmurs. Extensive guidance is provided for each type of congenital lesion a patient may present with in your office—each easily looked up and reviewed quickly just prior to seeing a patient. Acquired diseases such as Kawasaki disease are discussed, as well as infectious diseases, such as rheumatic fever, Lyme disease, endocarditis, pericarditis, and myocarditis. Common preventive cardiology issues are presented, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, sports clearance, screening prior to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication administration, and adolescent autonomic dysfunction. Finally, a robust discussion of cardiac medications is provided, focused on the pediatric care professional. In assembling this book, we have capitalized on the rich and unique resources of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), as well as contributions from experts from around the globe. We thank all of our authors for their time and expertise. The contents of this book were reviewed by experts from relevant AAP sections, committees, and councils, including non–cardiology specialty perspectives. The editors and contributing authors are grateful for these reviewers’ expertise and generous feedback. Special thanks are due to the cardiologists CCIP.indb 17 3/13/18 4:18 PM
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