591
Bright F U T U R E S
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
PREVENTIVE PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE
INFANCY EARLY CHILDHOOD MIDDLE CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE
AGE1 PRENATAL
2
NEWBORN3 3–5 d4 By1 mo 2 mo 4 mo 6 mo 9 mo 12 m 15 mo 18 mo 24 mo 30 mo 3 y 4 y 5 y 6 y 7 y 8 y 9 y 10 y 11 y 12 y 13 y 14 y 15 y 16 y 17 y 18 y 19 y 20 y 21 y
HISTORY
Initial/Interval c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
MEASUREMENTS
Length/Height and Weight c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
Head Circumference c c c c c c c c c c c
Weight for Length c c c c c c c c c c
Body Mass Index c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
Blood Pressure5 . . . . . . . . . . . . c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
SENSORY SCREENING
Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . c
6
c c c . c . c . c . . c . . c . . .
Hearing c
7
. . . . . . . . . . . . c c c . c . c . . . . . . . . . . .
DEVELOPMENTAL/BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT
Developmental Screening8 c c c
Autism Screening9 c c
Developmental Surveillance8 c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
Psychosocial/Behavioral Assessment c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
Alcohol and Drug Use Assessment . . . . . . . . . . .
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION10 c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
PROCEDURES11
Newborn Metabolic/Hemoglobin Screening12 c
Immunization13 c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
Hematocrit or Hemoglobin14 . c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lead Screening15 . . cor.16 . cor.16 . . . .
Tuberculin Test
17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dyslipidemia Screening18 . . . . . . . . . . . . c
STI Screening19 . . . . . . . . . . .
Cervical Dysplasia Screening20 . . . . . . . . . . .
ORAL HEALTH21 . . cor.
21
cor.21cor.21 cor.21 c22 c22
ANTICIPATORY GUIDANCE23 c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care
Bright Futures/American Academy of Pediatrics
Prevention and health promotion for infants,
children, adolescents, and their familiesTM TM
Each child and family is unique; therefore, theseRecommendations for Preventive
Pediatric Health Careare designed for the care of children who are receiving
competent parenting, have no manifestations of any important health problems, and
are growing and developing in satisfactory fashion.Additional visits may become
necessaryif circumstances suggest variations from normal.
Developmental, psychosocial, and chronic disease issues for children and
adolescents may require frequent counseling and treatment visits separate from
preventive care visits.
These guidelines represent a consensus by the American Academy of Pediatrics
(AAP) and Bright Futures. The AAP continues to emphasize the great importance of
continuity of carein comprehensive health supervision and the need to avoid
fragmentation of care.
1. If a child comes under care for the first time at any point on the schedule, or if any items are not accomplished at the sug-
gested age, the schedule should be brought up to date at the earliest possible time.
2. A prenatal visit is recommended for parents who are at high risk, for first-time parents, and for those who request a confer-
ence. The prenatal visit should include anticipatory guidance, pertinent medical history, and a discussion of benefits of
breastfeeding and planned method of feeding per AAP statement “The Prenatal Visit” (2001)
[URL: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;107/6/1456].
3. Every infant should have a newborn evaluation after birth, breastfeeding encouraged, and instruction and support offered.
4. Every infant should have an evaluation within 3 to 5 days of birth and within 48 to 72 hours after discharge from the hospital,
to include evaluation for feeding and jaundice. Breastfeeding infants should receive formal breastfeeding evaluation, encour-
agement, and instruction as recommended in AAP statement “Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk” (2005) [URL:
http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;115/2/496]. For newborns discharged in less than 48 hours
after delivery, the infant must be examined within 48 hours of discharge per AAP statement “Hospital Stay for Healthy Term
Newborns” (2004) [URL: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;113/5/1434].
5. Blood pressure measurement in infants and children with specific risk conditions should be performed at visits before age 3
years.
6. If the patient is uncooperative, rescreen within 6 months per AAP statement “Eye Examination in Infants, Children, and
Young Adults by Pediatricians” (2007) [URL: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;111/4/902].
7. All newborns should be screened per AAP statement “Year 2000 Position Statement: Principles and Guidelines for Early
Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs (2000) [URL: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/
pediatrics;106/4/798]. Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. Year 2007 position statement: principles and guidelines for early
hearing detection and intervention programs.Pediatrics.2007;120:898–921.
8. AAP Council on Children With Disabilities, AAP Section on Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, AAP Bright Futures Steering
Committee, AAP Medical Home Initiatives for Children With Special Needs Project Advisory Committee. Identifying infants
and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: an algorithm for developmental surveillance and
screening.Pediatrics.2006;118:405–420 [URL: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;118/1/405].
9. Gupta VB, Hyman SL, Johnson CP, et al. Identifying children with autism early? Pediatrics.2007;119:152–153 [URL:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/119/1/152].
10. At each visit, age-appropriate physical examination is essential, with infant totally unclothed, older child undressed and suit-
ably draped.
11. These may be modified, depending on entry point into schedule and individual need.
12. Newborn metabolic and hemoglobinopathy screening should be done according to state law. Results should be reviewed at
visits and appropriate retesting or referral done as needed.
13. Schedules per the Committee on Infectious Diseases, published annually in the January issue ofPediatrics.Every visit
should be an opportunity to update and complete a child’s immunizations.
14. See AAP Pediatric Nutrition Handbook,5th Edition (2003) for a discussion of universal and selective screening options. See
also Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States.MMWR.1998;47(RR-3):1–36.
15. For children at risk of lead exposure, consult the AAP statement “Lead Exposure in Children: Prevention, Detection, and
Management” (2005) [URL: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;116/4/1036]. Additionally, screen-
ing should be done in accordance with state law where applicable.
16. Perform risk assessments or screens as appropriate, based on universal screening requirements for patients with Medicaid
or highprevalence areas.
17. Tuberculosis testing per recommendations of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, published in the current edition ofRed
Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases.Testing should be done on recognition of high-risk factors.
18. “Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment
of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report” (2002) [URL: http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/
content/full/106/25/3143] and “The Expert Committee Recommendations on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of
Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity.” Supplement to Pediatrics.In press.
19. All sexually active patients should be screened for sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
20. All sexually active girls should have screening for cervical dysplasia as part of a pelvic examination beginning within 3 years
of onset of sexual activity or age 21 (whichever comes first).
21. Referral to dental home, if available. Otherwise, administer oral health risk assessment. If the primary water source is defi-
cient in fluoride, consider oral fluoride supplementation.
22. At the visits for 3 years and 6 years of age, it should be determined whether the patient has a dental home. If the patient
does not have a dental home, a referral should be made to one. If the primary water source is deficient in fluoride, consider
oral fluoride supplementation.
23. Refer to the specific guidance by age as listed in Bright Futures Guidelines. (Hagan JF, Shaw JS, Duncan PM, eds.Bright
Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents.3rd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American
Academy of Pediatrics; 2008.)
KEY
c=
to be performed
.
= risk assessment to be performed, with appropriate action to follow, if positive
c
= range during which a service may be provided, with the symbol indicating the preferred age
The recommendations in this statement do not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or standard of medical
care. Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate.
Copyright © 2008 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
No part of this statement may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior written permission
from the American Academy of Pediatrics except for one copy for personal use.
Appendix
C
See
page
619
for
a
removable
Recommendations
for
Pediatric
Health
Care
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